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Getting a Cow
Initially, the only way you can obtain a cow is by buying one from Brownie Ranch. They cost 4500 G, and will be a calf when purchased. The calf will take a whole season (28 days) to mature, and will not produce any milk before that.
You can also breed your own cows, with a Cow Miracle Potion, also purchasable from Brownie Ranch. Each Cow Miracle Potion costs 2100 G, and using it on an adult cow will impregnate it. Your impregnated cow will give birth to a calf in 14 days, and it, too, will be fully grown in a season, live about 6 years.
Each cow can be one of three colors: black, brown, or black-and-white. Whether your cow is bought or bred, the color of its coat will be completely random (i.e. a black cow may or may not give birth to a black calf; it has equal chances of mothering a brown or black-and-white cow).
Unlike certain titles of Harvest Moon, though, your cow's appearance will not have any effect on the milk it produces.
For the best milk you should graze your cow(s) on sunny days. On non-sunny days feed them fodder. You can also hand feed your cows to raise their affection. Brushing your cow is a wise choice you can purchase a brush from Brownie Ranch. You should also talk to them daily to increase their hearts.
When your Cow is old enough to produce milk, they will start with giving you Decent Milk. As you get more hearts with them they will move up to Good, Perfect then Shining. You can make Butter and Cheese with the milk you get from cows. To make Butter/Cheese you have to put it in a maker that you can buy at the Genral store. The quality of the milk is the same as the quality of the Butter/Cheese. For example Perfect Milk = Perfect Butter. The selling price goes up when you put it in a maker though.